Categories
Criminal Justice

Answer questions 1-11 separately with 4-5 sentences for each question. If you us

Answer questions 1-11 separately with 4-5 sentences for each question.
If you use a source make sure to cite your work, NO PLAGIARISM!
1. For purpose of an aggravated assault or aggravated battery charge, explain what may constitute a “deadly or dangerous weapon.”
2. List and explain the defenses available to a defendant charged with the crime of assault or battery.
3. Compare and contrast the crimes of kidnapping, hostage taking, and false imprisonment.
4. List the three exceptions to the rape shield laws and explain their purpose. 5. Explain how robbery differs from extortion, Provide some examples of extortion.
6. Compare and contrast bribery and extortion. State an example of a crime which includeds both bribery and extortion.
7. Explain the clash between the federal government and several states over the medical use of marijuana.
8. List the elements the prosecution must prove to obtain a RICO conviction. 9. Explain the purpose of the offense of obstruction of justice. Provide examples of how this crime may be committed. 10. State the definition of white-collar crime. List some examples of this type of crime. Provide an example of a famous white-collar criminal and explain his or her crime. 11. Explain the difference between DUI 1st and DUI 2nd offense based upon Tennessee Law.

Categories
Criminal Justice

Step 1: Choose a Topic Treatment of witnesses Treatment of victims Role of defen

Step 1: Choose a Topic
Treatment of witnesses
Treatment of victims
Role of defence counsel
Role of the accused
Role of the crown attorney
Role of the judge
Leniency in sentencing
Bail supervision
Technology in the courtroom
What observations should I record?
“Fieldnotes” are the notes you make while doing research “in the field” (i.e. in court).
To help you get organized, I have created a fieldnote template that you can print and
bring with you to court. I recommend documenting your observations in 15 minute
increments under the following broad headings:
Setting (architecture, furniture, layout, general “vibe”, rituals, routines)
People (key actors, gender, race, clothing, facial expressions, spoken words)
Interactions (friendly, professional, task-oriented, interruptions, who’s in charge?)
Reflections (thoughts, feelings, judgments, expectations, assumptions, misconceptions)
How do I record my observations?
Step 1: Jot Notes
These are the notes you make in your fieldnote template. They are brief notes that will
help you recall additional details later on.
1
Step 2: Recap Timeline
I recommend heading to a coffee shop, library or home computer shortly after your
court observation and begin drafting a chronological description of what you
observed.
Documenting your fieldnotes in 15 minute increments will assist very much with this
task. These descriptions will feed directly into your essay. Sooner is better than later as
you will find it hard to recollect what you observed.
Step 3: Describe Relevant Scenes and Events
Shortly after your court observation, you will also want to provide a detailed
description of relevant scenes and events. These should tie directly to your topic.
Remember, the goal of this assignment is to record what you observe, but also to
make some claims in relation to your chosen topic.
Example
Topic: Role of defence counsel
Jot Notes: accused = young woman, crime = theft under
5k lawyer delayed, judge annoyed, room 201
Timeline: I entered room #201 at 9:55 a.m. The judge emerged from her chambers
shortly before 10:00 a.m. The proceedings were scheduled to begin at 10:00 a.m. The
proceedings began at 10:10 a.m.
Relevant Events: I entered room #201 shortly before the proceedings were set to begin
at 10:00 a.m. The accused was approximately 25 years old and appeared nervous. She
was a slender woman with medium length black hair. The accused was charged with
theft under $5000 for a shoplifting incident that took place at Polo Park mall. When the
judge emerged from her chambers, she inquired about the whereabouts of the accused’s
lawyer. The accused stated her lawyer was caught in traffic and would be arriving
shortly. The judge frowned and said they would only wait for “a few minutes” before
rescheduling the case.
Step 4: Analyze Your Fieldnotes
Once you have transformed your jot notes into a timeline and described several key
events, I recommend setting your work aside for a few days and then returning
with the intention of connecting your observations to your topic using the following
questions as a guide:
What are people doing? What are people trying to accomplish?
Who has/does not have power? How do people talk about what is going on?
What strategies do they use? What assumptions are people making?
What do I see going on here? What is at stake?
What did I learn from these notes? How does it all fit together?
Step 5: Incorporate Your Fieldnotes into an Essay
Once you have analyzed your fieldnotes and sketched some preliminary connections to
your topic, you are ready to incorporate your fieldnotes into an essay. I highly
2
recommend using the essay outline template as this helps you organize your ideas.
Please include the following elements:
Introduction: What is your topic? What claim(s) are you making in relation to
your topic? E.g. The role of X is to Y
Setting the Scene: How and where did you gather your data? (use fieldnotes)
Provide evidence for your claim(s): What did you observe? How does this relate to
your claim? (use fieldnotes)
Conclusion: What are the implications? Questions for future contemplation?
**All assignments must be uploaded to the appropriate Dropbox folder which is
located under the “Assessments” tab. Late assignments will not be accepted without
proper medical documentation. Please keep a paper copy of this assignment for your

Categories
Criminal Justice

Complete the following questions. The answers to the questions should be thorou

Complete the following questions.
The answers to the questions should be thorough to display a complete understanding of the text and be at least 5 sentences. On every question.
While some questions may seem opinion based, I will be looking for information from the text to confirm your learning.
If an elderly father puts his daughter’s name on his accounts at a bank and an investment company as a “joint owner”, with instructions that she may deposit and withdraw funds from the accounts, can the daughter be convicted of theft for such withdrawals? If so, under what circumstances? See Wagner v. State, 128 A.3d 1 (Md. App. 2016)
Robbery requires a “forcible” taking of property. We saw in this chapter that states have gone beyond a strict definition of “taking” as meaning the actual act of theft, and have also included in the definition of “forcible” under a robbery statute the force used in flight after the theft. Was the force used in the theft that occurred in People v. Williams, 305 P.3d 1241 (Cal. 2013)? There, the defendant used fraudulent credit cards to buy gift cards at a Wal-Mart store. Store security officers discovered the fraud while the defendant was still in the store, and attempted to block his exit from the store. The defendant struggled with the officers and was held for the police to arrive. He was convicted of robbery, and appealed. Should his conviction be reversed? Why or why not?
Carlos Ezeta was a professor and student advisor at a Las Vegas community college. As part of his position he advised Hispanic students on enrollment and curriculum choices. He also helped these students apply for federal financial aid by making false statements on FAFSA forms. He did not receive any payment for his actions, and any financial aid went to the students. Ezeta was indicted under 20 U.S.C. § 1097(a) for making false statements to the government to “obtain federal financial aid money.” He moved to quash (dismiss) the indictment, contending he could not violate the statute because he did not “obtain” any financial aid for himself. The trial judge agreed, and dismissed the indictment. The government appealed. What should the appeals court decide? Why? See United States v. Ezeta, 752 F.3d 1182 (9th Cir. 2014)

Categories
Criminal Justice

Good Afternooon I need to reply to classmates Prompt Reponse.. See Below Classma

Good Afternooon
I need to reply to classmates Prompt Reponse.. See Below
Classmates Prompt:
How representative is Congress? Most legislators are white, upper-middle-class males, although this group is a very small part of our entire population. What impact does this skewed representation have in terms of liberty, equality, and democracy? Can these people really represent women, minorities, and poor citizens? Realistically, could an indigent person ever get elected to Congress?
Classmates Reply:
Congress is not representative
Congress has long been criticized for not being at all representative because the majority of its members are white, middle-class males, who make up a very small fraction of the country overall. People from all walks of life, as well as from all cultural and geographic backgrounds, immigrate to the United States in search of a better life. This country is renowned for its outstanding diversity. It is highly challenging to have the desired impact on the freedom, equality, and democracy of the country given this lopsided representation and the lack of individuals who truly reflect the nation’s poor population. Anyone who isn’t white and from the upper class finds it difficult to win election to Congress and represent their constituents.
The situation is improving, though, so that is a silver lining. Congress has been more diverse throughout the years, with the 115th congress being the most diverse to date with about 20% of members being non-white. A more diverse and effective congress that represents and cherishes the voice, opinion, and needs of all American communities will undoubtedly be seen if this trend continues in the years to come.
Ginsberg, B., Lowi, T., Weir, M., Tolbert, C. J., Campbell, A., & Spitzer, R. (2021). We the people: An introduction to American politics. W.W. Norton & Company.
Schaeffer, K. (2021, April 1). The changing face of congress in 7 charts. Pew Research Center. Retrieved November 22, 2022, from https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2021/03/10/t…
Rule for response
Response posts have a 75-word minimum (about 1 paragraph) – it is not enough to agree or disagree, explain why or what you found interesting in the way they responded.

Categories
Criminal Justice

There is 5 questions and each question needs to be answered separately with 2 pa

There is 5 questions and each question needs to be answered separately with 2 paragraphs each.
You do not have to cite your sources, because the material is based on the textbook. Only use the textbook to answer your questions, which I will provide.
Questions 1-5:
1. Summarize the process of plea-bargaining. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the plea-bargaining system?
2. Is it considered double jeopardy to try a defendant simultaneously in both the state and federal system for the same crime? Why or why not?
3. Summarize the basic components of the five contemporary sentencing philosophies.
4. What factors drove the significant rise in the rate of incarceration during the 1970s and 1980s?
5. Discuss the various rolls of a probation and parole officer regarding the supervision of convicted offenders in the community. Why is Community Supervision less costly than incarceration? What are the advantages of using community-based corrections?

Categories
Criminal Justice

Complete a research paper that will include the following points. The paper shou

Complete a research paper that will include the following points. The paper should be a minimum of 5 pages of content (this will not include the title page, abstract, reference page). 8 pages The paper will be written in APA format using 12-inch Times New Roman font and one-inch margins. For each question, please use an appropriate heading to separate your thoughts. For example –
Page one will be your title page.
Page two will begin your answers to the questions.
Criminal Justice System
1. Discuss the criminal justice system. Historically, what is the makeup of the criminal justice system? How do the systems interact? (C.O. 5)
Crime, Investigation, and Outcome
2. Outline the crime, the investigation, and the outcome (C.O. 1).
CJ Systems Involved and Interaction
3. What criminal justice systems were involved in the case. How were they involved and how did they interact? (C.O. 1)
Role of Law Enforcement
4. What role did law enforcement play in the investigation (C.O. 2).
Crimes Committed
5. What crimes were committed? (C.O. 3)
Crime Solved / Due Process Issues / Amendment Issues
6. How was the crime solved? Were there any due process issues? What Amendment issues such as search and seizure, confessions, evidence, etc were evident in the case? (C.O. 3).
The Psychological and/or Sociological Impact on the Community
7. What psychological and/or sociological impact of the crime was had on the community and the victim’s family/friends? What about the suspect’s family/friends? (C.O. 4)
Evidence Retained / Ethical Issues on Evidence
8. Identify how the murder weapon and recordings of the suspect were obtained. Do you feel there were ethical issues in how the detective obtained the gun and recordings made in the car with the suspect? Was there an issue with how the evidence was obtained? (C.O. 3, 6)
How Corrections Played a Role in the Outcome
9. How will the corrections system play a role in the case? (C.O. 1, 2).
Watch the following video—complete additional research on this case.
CRIME DOCUMENTARY: The Murder of Emma Walker, watch on youtube.
1) Paper’s theme or key idea is completely developed 2) the ideas are clear, and well defined 3) the argument is cogent with numerous points fully developed. The paper contains a quantity of high-quality thought-provoking ideas used skillfully and creatively to completely support the topic as required. Paper consistently and accurately adheres to all style and formatting requirements, including references. Length is appropriate. ) Resources used are sufficient in quantity; 2) Resources are appropriate; 3) Student clearly his/her thoughts from those of others at all times.

Categories
Criminal Justice

Complete the following questions. The answers to the questions should be thorou

Complete the following questions.
The answers to the questions should be thorough to display a complete understanding of the text and be at least 5 sentences. On every question.
While some questions may seem opinion based, I will be looking for information from the text to confirm your learning.
If an elderly father puts his daughter’s name on his accounts at a bank and an investment company as a “joint owner”, with instructions that she may deposit and withdraw funds from the accounts, can the daughter be convicted of theft for such withdrawals? If so, under what circumstances? See Wagner v. State, 128 A.3d 1 (Md. App. 2016)
Robbery requires a “forcible” taking of property. We saw in this chapter that states have gone beyond a strict definition of “taking” as meaning the actual act of theft, and have also included in the definition of “forcible” under a robbery statute the force used in flight after the theft. Was the force used in the theft that occurred in People v. Williams, 305 P.3d 1241 (Cal. 2013)? There, the defendant used fraudulent credit cards to buy gift cards at a Wal-Mart store. Store security officers discovered the fraud while the defendant was still in the store, and attempted to block his exit from the store. The defendant struggled with the officers and was held for the police to arrive. He was convicted of robbery, and appealed. Should his conviction be reversed? Why or why not?
Carlos Ezeta was a professor and student advisor at a Las Vegas community college. As part of his position he advised Hispanic students on enrollment and curriculum choices. He also helped these students apply for federal financial aid by making false statements on FAFSA forms. He did not receive any payment for his actions, and any financial aid went to the students. Ezeta was indicted under 20 U.S.C. § 1097(a) for making false statements to the government to “obtain federal financial aid money.” He moved to quash (dismiss) the indictment, contending he could not violate the statute because he did not “obtain” any financial aid for himself. The trial judge agreed, and dismissed the indictment. The government appealed. What should the appeals court decide? Why? See United States v. Ezeta, 752 F.3d 1182 (9th Cir. 2014)

Categories
Criminal Justice

Complete a research paper that will include the following points. The paper shou

Complete a research paper that will include the following points. The paper should be a minimum of 5 pages of content (this will not include the title page, abstract, reference page). 8 pages The paper will be written in APA format using 12-inch Times New Roman font and one-inch margins. For each question, please use an appropriate heading to separate your thoughts. For example –
Page one will be your title page.
Page two will begin your answers to the questions.
Criminal Justice System
1. Discuss the criminal justice system. Historically, what is the makeup of the criminal justice system? How do the systems interact? (C.O. 5)
Crime, Investigation, and Outcome
2. Outline the crime, the investigation, and the outcome (C.O. 1).
CJ Systems Involved and Interaction
3. What criminal justice systems were involved in the case. How were they involved and how did they interact? (C.O. 1)
Role of Law Enforcement
4. What role did law enforcement play in the investigation (C.O. 2).
Crimes Committed
5. What crimes were committed? (C.O. 3)
Crime Solved / Due Process Issues / Amendment Issues
6. How was the crime solved? Were there any due process issues? What Amendment issues such as search and seizure, confessions, evidence, etc were evident in the case? (C.O. 3).
The Psychological and/or Sociological Impact on the Community
7. What psychological and/or sociological impact of the crime was had on the community and the victim’s family/friends? What about the suspect’s family/friends? (C.O. 4)
Evidence Retained / Ethical Issues on Evidence
8. Identify how the murder weapon and recordings of the suspect were obtained. Do you feel there were ethical issues in how the detective obtained the gun and recordings made in the car with the suspect? Was there an issue with how the evidence was obtained? (C.O. 3, 6)
How Corrections Played a Role in the Outcome
9. How will the corrections system play a role in the case? (C.O. 1, 2).
Watch the following video—complete additional research on this case.
CRIME DOCUMENTARY: The Murder of Emma Walker, watch on youtube.
1) Paper’s theme or key idea is completely developed 2) the ideas are clear, and well defined 3) the argument is cogent with numerous points fully developed. The paper contains a quantity of high-quality thought-provoking ideas used skillfully and creatively to completely support the topic as required. Paper consistently and accurately adheres to all style and formatting requirements, including references. Length is appropriate. ) Resources used are sufficient in quantity; 2) Resources are appropriate; 3) Student clearly his/her thoughts from those of others at all times.

Categories
Criminal Justice

There is 5 questions and each question needs to be answered separately with 2 pa

There is 5 questions and each question needs to be answered separately with 2 paragraphs each.
You do not have to cite your sources, because the material is based on the textbook. Only use the textbook to answer your questions, which I will provide.
Questions 1-5:
1. Summarize the process of plea-bargaining. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the plea-bargaining system?
2. Is it considered double jeopardy to try a defendant simultaneously in both the state and federal system for the same crime? Why or why not?
3. Summarize the basic components of the five contemporary sentencing philosophies.
4. What factors drove the significant rise in the rate of incarceration during the 1970s and 1980s?
5. Discuss the various rolls of a probation and parole officer regarding the supervision of convicted offenders in the community. Why is Community Supervision less costly than incarceration? What are the advantages of using community-based corrections?

Categories
Criminal Justice

Question 1: Write a results paragraph describing ONLY correlations that are sta

Question 1:
Write a results paragraph describing ONLY correlations that are statistically significant at p < 0.05 level. When interpreting statistically significant correlations you should focus on strength of association and directionality of the association (i.e. positive or negative)
The written descriptions should include significance (0.05 or less), directionality, and magnitude of the correlation. You should only describe correlations that are statistically significant (ie, when the p-value for a correlation is below the significance criterion of 0.05). I have provided an example write up from another project (NOT YOUR PROJECT)
Jacob Cohen’s rule of thumb for magnitude (or strength of relationship) that we are using in this class (absolute values):
Large
Mod.
Small
Mod.
Large
-1
-.9
-.8
-.7
-.6
-.5
-.4
-.3
-.2
-.1
0
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
1
Example paragraph:

(The example paragraph below is from another project that does not contain all the same variables as your project. Therefore, you should not use this specific paragraph, but this does give you some guidance as to what we expect. The most important thing to remember is that you should only interpret correlations that are statistically significant by describing the magnitude and direction of the statistically significant correlations)
Table 2 shows Pearson product moment correlations among dependent, independent, and statistical control variables for the full analysis sample. The fear of crime scale has positive and statistically significant correlations with victimization (r = ##; p < .## ) and neighborhood disorder (r = ##, p < ##). The fear of crime scale has a negative and statistically significant correlation with gender (r = ##; p < ##). The magnitude of these relationships is range from small to moderate. University Area residents who report being victims of crime in the past six months are significantly more fearful of crime in their neighborhood at night compared to those who do not report being victims of crime. On average, females report feeling more fearful (or less safe) in the University area at night compared to males. Residents who perceive neighborhood disorder to be more of a problem also report higher scores on the fear of crime scale, indicating they are more fearful at night in their neighborhood compared to those who perceive neighborhood disorder to be less of a problem. Fear of crime has a negative and statistically significant correlation with age (r = ##; p < ##), indicating that younger residents are more fearful of crime in their neighborhood. Gender has negative and statistically significant correlations with victimization (r = ##; p < ##) and neighborhood disorder (r = ##; p < ##). Females, on average, are more likely to report being victims of violent crime and perceive more neighborhood disorder compared to their male counterparts.
Generic examples for the written part (with hypothetical values and variables):
A positive, statistically significant, and strong relationshipExample: There is a positive and statistically significant relationship between X and Y (r =. 75; p < 0.05). Specifically, individuals who have higher scores on variable X will tend to have higher scores on Y as well. Furthermore, the relationship between X and Y is strong, suggesting that the relationship is quite consistent.
A negative, statistically significant, and moderate relationshipExample: There is a moderate negative and statistically significant relationship between X and Y (r = -.30; p < 0.05). Individuals who have higher scores on variable X will tend to have lower scores on Y.
A binary variable and a continuous variableExplanation: With a binary variable (e.g., victimization) and a continuous variable (e.g., fear of crime), the correlation is a special type of the Pearson Product Moment Correlation called a point-biserial correlation. The example below is hypothetical – you do not have a life satisfaction variable in your data!
Example: The relationship between victimization and fear of crime is statistically significant and positive; however, the magnitude of the relationship is small (r = -0.05; p < 0.05). This suggests that, on average, those who have experienced victimization in the past six months tend to also report more fear of crime
Table 2. Bivariate correlations between Independent, Dependent, and Statistical Control Variables (n = 500)
X1X2X3X4X5X6
X1: Fear of Crime1.00-0.3738*-0.1066*-0.1900*0.2778*0.1827*
X2: Collective Efficacy-0.3738*1.000.1330*0.0199-0.3237*-0.1515*
X3: Age-0.1066*0.1330*1.00-0.0247-0.1265*0.0003
X4: Sex (1 = Male)-0.1900*0.0199-0.02471.000.1163*0.1919*
X5: Disorder0.2778*-0.3237*-0.1265*0.1163*1.000.2193*
X6: Victim (1=Yes)0.1827*-0.1515*0.00030.1919*0.2193*1.00
Note: * = p < 0.05
Question 2: I have used the 5 easy steps for multivariate linear regression to write a paragraph of results specific to your linear regression results. However, I have left several “blanks” in this paragraph that you must complete by using the correct word(s) to describe the linear regression results. Write a discussion section that is 2 double spaced pages in length (12 font). This section should accomplish the following:
Summarize your findings as they relate to your null and research hypotheses – what was anticipated or predicted about the association between perceptions of collective efficacy and fear of crime and what did you discover?
Discuss your findings as they relate to published research on collective efficacy, as well as studies on collective efficacy and fear of crime. (for example, are your findings consistent with past research or not; if your findings are different from past studies why do you think this is so?).
Discuss at least two limitations of your study. This could be sample limitations, how the outcome was operationalized and measured, the exclusion of potentially important predictors; generalizability; measurement concerns regarding primary variables or statistical control variables etc.).
Finally, identify two important directions for future research on collective efficacy and fear of crime that can build on research you have conducted in this course on collective efficacy and fear of crime. (this is where you can be creative in defining a modest research agenda that builds on your research examining perceptions of collective efficacy and fear of crime)
Table 2. Multivariate Linear Regression Results Predicting Fear of Crime at Night Among Adult Residents of the University Area (n = 500)

Independent Variables

b

SE

Beta

Perceptions of Collective Efficacy
-0.3062281
0.0459909
-0.2785088

Victimization (victim=1)
0.2345025
0.058232
0.1658101

Neighborhood Disorder
0.1567292
0.039603
0.1678922

Gender (male = 1)
-0.2613904
0.0437398
-0.2392226

Black
-0.1163207
0.0509832
-0.108349

Hispanic
0.0956982
0.0642722
0.0697364

Other
-0.0686426
0.1004201
-0.0289358

Age
-0.0022789
0.001775
-0.0527902

Constant =
3.276717
0.1478916

F- statistic =
20.93
20.93
20.93

Adjusted R2 =
0.2421
0.2421
0.2421
Note: * = p <0.05